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Autumn Life of Animals of Our Region

Autumn is the brightest period of the year when the nature changes its usual look to golden shades of retreating sun. Forests become quite. Just a short while ago one could hear birds' singing. But the Autumn has come and the majority of birds quit their places. Insect-eating birds are the first to leave - swifts, cuckoos, orioles, nightingales, swallows. When first frosts come, waterfowl starts leaving - geese, swans.  Birds fly to South to stay during winter there. Some birds follow long routes, ither birds prefer shorter ones.


For example, storks spend winter in tropical Africa, larks pass the winter in South of Europe. Some bird species wander in flocks around their native area looking for places where they still can find some food. The major reason for migration of birds is absense of food, reduce of light day and decrease of environmental temperature. Even insects migrate together with birds to warm lands. Some species of dragonflies, ladybirds and butterflies migrate to warmer places. 

But there are birds who can stand cold. They live in their native land throughout the year. They do not migrate. Right now one can hear a wood pecker drumming, blue-tits chirruping and jay birds crying. Black raven is soaring in the sky as if there is no upcoming winter. European partridge also stays at home. This bird feeds on seeds, leaf buds and offshoots that it can find even under snow. Goldfinches and greenfinches feed on weed seeds.



Other animals prepare food storages. Mice and hamsters collect various seeds. Such a storage may contain about five kilos of seeds. Mole rats take different roots, bulbs, seeds into their homes to feed themselves during winter. Such animals as badger and raccon dog have period of winter sleeping - this is adjustment of some mammals to severe climatic conditions. Therefore they actively eat in the end of summer and in the beginning of autumn to collect fat supplies to stand winter period. Comparing to hibernation period, body temperature and metabolic activity decrease just a little. The animal is able to return quickly to active life. Marmotta bobacks, susliks, hedgehogs, bats snakes and amphibians come into deep hibernation. Their metabolic activity and body temperature decrease considerably, breathing rate gets lower, other physiological processes decrease. During hibernation the body temperature decreases to +4 °С.  

Therefore, we can see that animals have various protection mechanisms against cold. Some animals fly away to warm lands, some animals hibernate, some animals easily adjust to low temperature and live on their regular basis.